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Toothbrushes are the most important instrument in maintaining of oral hygiene. At first they were made from primitive materials that grew their own bacteria but today we have toothbrushes that do their job much better.
Toothpaste is one of the main ingredients in the process of keeping the teeth healthy. In combination with toothbrush it removes dental plaque and food that remains on the teeth after eating. Read more about history of toothpaste.
Since ancient times we had problems with crooked teeth. They interfered with proper eating and were not too aesthetically pleasing. Because of that, we tried to invent mechanical aids that helped us to fix them. Read about history of orthodontics.
Except with dentures, missing teeth can be replaced with dental implants. People made and used dental implants since some 4000 years ago, using bamboo pegs and seashells instead of missing teeth.