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Forms of cosmetic dentistry existed since the ancient times and since people found out that they can use other materials to replace missing teeth or that they can make them white again. Today it is an important branch of dentistry.
Since ancient times we had problems with crooked teeth. They interfered with proper eating and were not too aesthetically pleasing. Because of that, we tried to invent mechanical aids that helped us to fix them. Read about history of orthodontics.
Toothbrushes are the most important instrument in maintaining of oral hygiene. At first they were made from primitive materials that grew their own bacteria but today we have toothbrushes that do their job much better.
Since the ancient times, we try to keep our mouth and teeth clean. Until we found out how bacteria work, we used some pretty unsanitary methods for that but in time we learned and today our hygiene standards are pretty high. Read more about history of oral hygiene.