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Except with dentures, missing teeth can be replaced with dental implants. People made and used dental implants since some 4000 years ago, using bamboo pegs and seashells instead of missing teeth.
Since ancient times we had problems with crooked teeth. They interfered with proper eating and were not too aesthetically pleasing. Because of that, we tried to invent mechanical aids that helped us to fix them. Read about history of orthodontics.
Forms of cosmetic dentistry existed since the ancient times and since people found out that they can use other materials to replace missing teeth or that they can make them white again. Today it is an important branch of dentistry.
Toothbrushes are the most important instrument in maintaining of oral hygiene. At first they were made from primitive materials that grew their own bacteria but today we have toothbrushes that do their job much better.