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Except with dentures, missing teeth can be replaced with dental implants. People made and used dental implants since some 4000 years ago, using bamboo pegs and seashells instead of missing teeth.
Toothbrushes are the most important instrument in maintaining of oral hygiene. At first they were made from primitive materials that grew their own bacteria but today we have toothbrushes that do their job much better.
Dental instruments progressed for nearly 9000 years and from very primitive tools they developed into sophisticated equipment that can still seam scary but not so much when you compare them with tools people fixed their teeth some 100 years ago.
Forms of cosmetic dentistry existed since the ancient times and since people found out that they can use other materials to replace missing teeth or that they can make them white again. Today it is an important branch of dentistry.