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Dental instruments progressed for nearly 9000 years and from very primitive tools they developed into sophisticated equipment that can still seam scary but not so much when you compare them with tools people fixed their teeth some 100 years ago.
Tooth decay is one of the oldest diseases of the human race. People had caries for millions of years and still have it today. With the appearance of sugar cane and other types of sugar prevalence of caries increased and until the modern treatments of caries, both preventive and remedial, lessen the number and seriousness of caries cases.
Toothpaste is one of the main ingredients in the process of keeping the teeth healthy. In combination with toothbrush it removes dental plaque and food that remains on the teeth after eating. Read more about history of toothpaste.
Except with dentures, missing teeth can be replaced with dental implants. People made and used dental implants since some 4000 years ago, using bamboo pegs and seashells instead of missing teeth.